A PROFILE AND TRAINING FRAMEWORK OF VIP PROTECTORby MS S. VENTER PROF J.S. BASSON MNR G.J. STEYN Department of Human Resouces Management, University of Pretoria.Presentation, Istanbul, Turkey: Sixth Annual European Congress of Work andOrganisational Psychology,12-15 May, 2005.
A generic profile and training framework was compiled for a VIP Protector conducting a qualitative data analysis and utilising the Job Profiling Inventory. Lawshe.s content validation technique and a content evaluation panel were used to validate and determine content validity ratios (CVR). High validity ratios (mean of 0,73 and 0,81) were obtained for the profile and training framework respectively. The results indicated that the most important competencies for a VIP Protector are observance, listening potential and hand-eye-coordination with a CVR of 0,99, 0,95 and 0,85 respectively. The most important training identified was escorting, driving skills and weapon handling.
1. BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY
2. THE VIP PROTECTOR
The following approach was followed during this study.
3.1 Qualitative data analysis
3.2 Compilation of a VIP Protector.s profile
An individual needs to rate each competency against the above-mentioned 5-point scale, to determine the vital competencies necessary for a specific job.
VIP Protectors were identified from various sectors based on their knowledge and expertise and the JPI was utilised on the sample group to identify core competencies necessary for successful job performance as a VIP Protector. The following VIP Protectors from different sectors were used to provide information regarding the profile and training framework of a VIP Protector:
because the quality and credibility of data they could generate was assured. The inventory of this study was completed independently and individually and they were asked to screen the competencies and determine the most important competencies necessary for VIP Protection. The data was captured and the profile was compiled with a JPI software programme. The competencies identified through the data analysis and with the help of the job profile were integrated into a generic profile to be validated by a panel of experts.
3.3. Compilation of a training framework for a VIP Protector
3.4. Content validity
pooled and the number indicating essential for each item was determined. Content validity ratios were for the profile and training framework utilising the following formula (Lawshe 1975, p. 567):
CVR= ne-N/2 / N/2
N is the total number of panelists and ne is the number of panelists indicating .essential.. While the CVR is a direct linear transformation from the percentage saying .essential., its utility derives from its characteristics. Lawshe (1975, pp. 567-568) indicated that when:
1 Fewer than half say .essential., the CVR is negative
2 Half say .essential. and half do not, the CVR is zero
3 All say .essential. the CVR is computed to be 1,00 (it is adjusted to 0,99 for ease of manipulation)
4 The number saying .very important. is more than half but less than all, the CVR is somewhere between zero and 0,99. A minimum CVR of 0,29 is required due to the fact that the panel consists of 40 experts. Table 1 indicates the minimum required CVR values.
TABLE 1 MINIMUM VALUES OF CVR
No of panelists
|Min CVR Value*|
4. QUALITATIVE LITERATURE ANALYSIS
4.1 Profile of a VIP PROTECTOR
The modern VIP Protector must possess certain qualities and be competent in various skills to perform effectively as a VIP Protector. Certain psychological factors need to be considered before appointing a VIP Protector. The following competencies and characteristics were identified during the literature analysis:
Consterdine (1993), SAAF (1999a), Miller and Miller (in Kobetz, 1994) and Yates (1998) state that a VIP Protector must have excellent observation skills. The VIP Protector must be attentive to detail and a keen observer. Observation is the most used skill and this must be learned and practised regularly. Observation is not just about looking but it is about seeing and is therefore extremely important for proactive avoidance of possible attacks and effective responding to threatening situations.
Consterdine (1993) and Yates (1998) are of the opinion that a VIP Protector must have an above average intelligence. Oatman (in Kobetz 1991) and Yates (1998,) affirmed this by stating that a VIP Protector must have good common sense. Miller and Miller (in Kobetz, 1994, p. 111) also state that a VIP Protector must be able to put the puzzle together. This will ensure that the protector is able to solve various problems quickly and effectively.
According to the SAAF (1999a), a VIP Protector must have good hand-eye-coordination and reflexes. Good hand-eye-coordination will help the VIP Protector to cope with high speed driving and ensure that the VIP Protector can react quickly in situations where he/she is forced to combat at close range.
Tact can be considered as one of the main qualities of a VIP Protector (Iverson, 2000; SAAF, 1999a; Yates, 1998). The high profile work of VIP Protection forces the VIP Protector to behave in a tactful manner in the presence of the principal. The VIP Protector must also be able to lead a tactful conversation with his/her VIP.
4.1.5. Adaptability and flexibility
Kobetz (1994) pointed out that a VIP Protector must be able to adapt and be flexible. The VIP Protector needs to be able to adapt due to the fact that he/she will be working long hours with little or no sleep. Flexibility is important since the VIP Protector will not be working normal and fixed hours. Adaptability also includes social adaptability (SAAF, 1999a). The VIP Protection specialist needs to adapt to the different social settings and environments that he/she works in. He/she needs to be flexible to work with a range of people and adapt to their preferred way of doing.
4.1.6 Mental stress
The SAAF (1999a, p. 4) pointed out it is essential for a VIP Protector to have the ability to handle difficult and demanding tasks. Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) also states that the mental health of a VIP Protector must be excellent. The protection specialist needs to work under extreme conditions and long hours are the norm.
4.1.7. Communication skills
According to Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) and Consterdine (1993), a VIP Protector should be an excellent communicator. Communication includes sign communication and intuitive communication. Sign communication covers hand and body signals, whereas intuitive communication takes place between members of a well-trained team who have operated together for a while (Castleshortt, 1996, p. 10). Effective communication is extremely important because the VIP Protector usually functions within a team and needs to educate his/her VIP in security matters.
4.1.8. Team player
According to Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) a VIP Protector must be a good team player. Many of the operations of VIP Protection are conducted within a team and being a team player is therefore essential. A safer environment will be created for the VIP when a team of protection specialists are involved.
Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991), Kobetz (1994), SAAF (1999a) and Yates (1998) pointed out that self-discipline is an important trait of a VIP Protector. Self-discipline ensures that the VIP Protector keeps himself/herself current in the field of VIP Protection. The VIP Protector must continuously refresh his/her skills in firearm training, formation and walking drills and planning. It is also the responsibility of the VIP Protector to keep his fitness level up to standard.
Kobetz (1994), Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) and SAAF (1999a) are of the opinion that devotion is an important trait of a VIP Protector. The VIP Protector must be dedicated to his/her responsibilities. Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) further states that a VIP Protector must be willing to be further trained in the field of VIP Protection.
According to Yates (1998) and Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991), positive attitude towards the job is, even under extreme circumstances, an important trait of a VIP Protector. Consterdine (1993, p. 35) states that a VIP Protector must have a mature attitude toward his/her work. The positive attitude will trigger enthusiasm and this will enable the VIP Protector to view every chance as an opportunity.
Thoroughness is another important quality of a VIP Protector (Kobetz, 1994). The VIP Protector must be focused on his/her task at hand and execute it with the necessary thoroughness. Every task starts with a planning phase and should be done thoroughly to avoid any errors that may arise out of a situation or an attack on your VIP.
Kobetz (1994), SAAF (1999a) and Spill (2001b) stress that loyalty is another important trait of a VIP Protector. The VIP Protector needs to be loyal to his/her principal. To be able to protect a VIP one hundred percent, the Protector needs to be loyal towards his/her work, which will reflect on his/her need to place the VIP.s life before his/her own
Kobetz (1994), Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) and Spill (2001b) are of the opinion that being honourable is another important trait of a VIP Protector. A VIP Protector must be truthful, doing right and knowing wrong. Lonsdale (1995b, p. 7) states that the principal will not trust a VIP Protector when he/she is willing to participate in illegal activities simply to protect his/her job.
According to SAAF (1999a) and Yates (1998), patience is an important characteristic for a VIP Protector. To function effectively within the milieu of VIP Protection, patience plays an important role when dealing with VIPs and work related problems. The Protector will be forced to work with various people and VIP delegates. Differences in culture, personality, language and religion can be frustrating for the VIP Protector and can cause irritation and annoyance. The VIP Protector needs to focus on the task and the client.s safety.
4.1.16 Strong instincts
Spill (2001a) states that good instincts are essential qualities of a VIP Protector. According to Iverson (2000, p. 19), a VIP Protector must be able to assess and read into a situation. This means the VIP Protector needs to be .street wise. and able to sense when things are about to go wrong so that he/she can take the appropriate action to avoid certain situations.
4.2 Training Frameworks
VIP Protectors can hardly do their job efficiently without the necessary training. Due to the diverse tasks of a VIP Protector and the emergence of new threats every day, training is essential in this industry and thus, learning is continual. Due to the importance of having skilled VIP Protectors and the increasing demand for VIP Protectors, it is crucial that proper training is given by qualified instructors. The following skills of a VIP Protector were identified during the literature analysis.
Yates (1998) is of the opinion that a VIP Protection course, must consist of pedestrian and vehicle escort training. Pedestrian escourt is trained through formation and walking drills. Formation and walking drills teach the precise positions of each team member on the ground (Snowdon, 1990, p. 19). Clearly the principal will not be walking everywhere. Therefore offensive and defensive driving must be taught to VIP Protectors to escort the principal.
4.2.2. Improvised explosive devices (IED)
Iverson (2000) states that the biggest threats a VIP Protector will face are bombs and improvised explosive devices. According to Yates (1998) and Thompson (1984) training in improvised explosive devices is essential. Yates (1998) states that the aim of training in IED is to extend the VIP Protector.s working knowledge of explosives and improvised devices. The role of the VIP Protector is, however, only to locate the device, remove the principal from the danger and to contact the appropriate authorities.
4.2.3 Driving skills
Yates (1998) pointed out that driving skill is one of the most important skills that a VIP Protector should possess. Protective driving consists of three phases, namely defensive, evasive and offensive driving. According to Castleshortt (1996) defensive driving can be defined as driving in situations where one seeks to avoid potential danger. Evasive driving enables the vehicle to escape from an ambush (Castleshortt, 1996). If the individual has failed to avoid (defensive) and failed to escape (evasive) the threat, then the individual must confront the threat. This is the basis of offensive driving, which refers to situations where the vehicle is used as a weapon (Castleshortt, 1996).
4.2.4 Close-quarter battle skills
A VIP Protector should be competent in close-quarter battle skills (Yates, 1998). Close-quarter battle is a generic term referring to combat in close proximity to the VIP. The methods used include firearms, chemical agents, edged and impact weapons, unarmed combat, arrest and restraint techniques and empty-hand combat.
4.2.5 Weapon training
Consterdine (1993), Snowdon (1990) and Thompson (1984) pointed out that weapon-handling training is essential. Kain et al. (1996, p. 272), state that although weapons do have a role to play, they don.t provide protection by themselves. It is unfortunate that the term bodyguard or VIP Protection is so often linked with the term .firearms.. This linkage has a negative influence on the image of a VIP Protector. The VIP Protector should be trained to a standard where the weapon becomes an effective tool and where the VIP Protector will be confident enough to counter any attack by a terrorist.
4.2.6 Electronic counter surveillance
Snowdon (1990) and Thompson (1984) are of the opinion that a VIP Protector needs to be proficient in this skill. Electronic counter surveillance is the physical and electronic search for passive and active means of electronic surveillance (commonly known as .bugs.). It includes the electronic counter measures needed to defeat electronic surveillance. According to Yates (1998) electronic counter surveillance is the most technical skill of all to master.
According to Consterdine (1993) and to Snowdon (1990), a VIP Protector must be trained in communication skills. The individual must be trained to communicate effectively with various individuals. Means of communication include face-to-face conversations, messages passed through a third party, use of copper wire or fibre-optic telephone cables, and carrier current intercoms, as well as radio transmissions (Castleshortt, 1996, p. 10). They should be clear and secure. This is to ensure that the message is clearly understood and that no unauthorised person can receive it.
Consterdine (1993), Thompson (1984) and Yates (1998) pointed out that a VIP Protector must be trained in paramedic skills and be able to apply first aid. The VIP Protector should be trained in life-support techniques to enable him/her to assist the principal in life and death situations. The following additional skills were identified in which a VIP Protector needs to be trained in. These skills will not be the main focus of the training. The additional skills include the following: observation, route selection and planning, threat assessment, etiquette, foreign language and physical fitness.4.2.9 Observation
According to Yates (1998), observation is the most used skill. The effective VIP Protector needs to trust his/her intuitive processing and should be able to be engaged in his/her environment while still being aware of what is going on around him/her (Iverson, 2000, p. 123). The VIP Protector can consciously train him-/herself to improve his/her observation skills by means of asking questions about his/her surroundings and by evaluating people.s behaviour. These exercises will help the VIP Protector to look and stay sharp in the field of VIP Protection.
4.2.10 Route selection and route planning
Consterdine (1993) states that a VIP Protector should be trained in route selection and planning. A route survey is necessary for the selection of primary and alternative routes of travel, as well as measures necessary to secure the routes to ensure the safety of the VIP when travelling by vehicle.
4.2.11 Threat assessment
According to Consterdine (1993), the VIP Protector must be an expert in threat assessment and Yates (1998) is of the opinion that it is one of the fundamental VIP Protector.s skills. A threat assessment is a systematic analysis of the degree of threat to the principal and is used to determine the type and measure of protection needed to safeguard the principal.s life. Ferrara in Kobetz (1991) states that the purpose of a threat assessment is to determine what risks exist
According to Yates (1998), basic good manners are a must. These include table manners and appropriate dressing required for social, entertaining and formal occasions. Thompson (1984) states that good knowledge of literature, art, music, drama and film can be very useful at social functions when the VIP Protector needs to blend in with the guests
4.2.13 Foreign language
According to Yates (1998) the learning of certain phrases and words is useful when a task is conducted in another country or when the VIP comes from another country. This implies that the VIP Protector must be prepared well in advance and before embarking on an assignment.
4.2.14 Physical condition
Iverson (2000) and Consterdine (1993) pointed out that a VIP protector should be physically fit. Iverson (2000) states that your concentration is higher when you are fit. This implies that your stamina will be better as well as your subconscious attention to detail. Fitness will improve your mental alertness.
6. QUALITATIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results discussed include the job profiling inventory and the content validity responses.
6.1. Job profiling inventory
The .Job Profiling Inventory (JPI). was utilised to profile the job of a VIP Protector in terms of the necessary competencies. The JP Expert ranks the top eight competencies in order of importance. The analyst can however manipulate the system by changing the number of competencies needed. Due to the diverse nature of the job of a VIP Protector and to incorporate more competencies identified in the literature analysis, twelve competencies were chosen. The following profile was derived from the Job Profiling Expert used to assess fifteen VIP Protectors from various sectors:
TABLE 2: COMPETENCY PROFILE ACCORDING TO THE JPI
6.2. Generic profile of a VIP Protector
The results of the JPI and the competencies identified in the literature analysis were combined into a generic profile. Most of the competencies identified through the literature analysis and job profiling process, corresponded. Although self-discipline and devotion appeared in the analysis as competencies necessary for success, they were combined under excellence orientation and personal development respectively. Memory and conceptualisation were not identified as important competencies in the literature analysis, but were included in the generic profile. Loyalty, honourability, patience and attitude were not included in the generic profile of a VIP Protector. The main reason for not being included in the profile is that these characteristics are extremely difficult to measure and to observe. These traits will be demonstrated once a person is selected and executes a task. While they are important characteristics, it is very difficult to develop these traits. The generic competencies of a VIP Protector include the following: observance, hand-eye-coordination, memory, listening potential, tact, mental stress, adaptability, personal development (including devotion), excellence orientation (including self-discipline), physical stress, conceptualisation, insight, communication and being a team player.
6.3. Generic training framework of a VIP Protector
The main themes of training for a VIP Protector were identified. Themes that were combined and included in the generic training framework, include the following: escorting, improvised explosive devices, driving skills, close-quarter battle (including weapon training), electronic counter surveillance (includingcommunication), paramedicine, observation, route selection and planning, threat assessment, etiquette, foreign languages and physical fitness.
6.4. Content validity
Lawshe.s (1975) content validation method was utilised to determine the content validity ratios. The content validity ratio (CVR) required to be included in the profile and training framework, is 0,29. Lawshe.s technique requires a ratio of 0,29 when 40 experts participate in the survey. After determining the content validity ratio, only the values greater than 0,29 were retained. Thereafter, the mean of these ratios were calculated and included in the content validity index (CVI). The table indicates the CVR ratios and the CVI for the profile as well as the training framework. The competencies and training skills were prioritised in the table and did not appear in this sequence in the questionnaires distributed.
TABLE 3: CONTENT VALIDITY RATIO FOR THE GENERIC PROFILE
Useful, but not essential
|2. Listening potential||39||1||0||0,95|
|8. Mental stress||34||6||0||0,70|
|9. Personal development||33||7||0||0,65|
|10. Team player||33||7||0||0,65|
|11. Excellence orientation||31||9||0||0,55|
|14. Physical stress||30||9||1||0,50|
General judgement of the profile of a VIP Protector
TABLE 4 CONTENT VALIDITY RATIO FOR THE TRAINING FRAMEWORK
Useful, but not essential
|2. Driving skills||40||0||0||0,99|
|3. Weapon training||40||0||0||0,99|
|5. Route selection and planning||39||1||0||0,95|
|6. Threat assessment||38||2||0||0,90|
|7. Close-quarter battle skills||37||3||0||0,85|
|12. Improvised explosive devices||24||16||0||0,20|
|13. Electronic counter surveillance||21||19||0||0,05|
|14. Foreign language||18||22||0||0,10|
6.5 Validity of the profile
The results indicate that the whole profile of a VIP Protector is valid due to the high validity ratios. All the competencies are therefore essential for effective job performance and were retained for the profile. The overall judgement of the profile indicates a content validity ratio of 0,99 and the CVI indicates a ratio of 0,73. This implies that the overall impression of the profile of a VIP Protector is valid and that the profile is a true portrayal of the competencies needed for a VIP Protector.
6.6. Validity of the training framework
The results indicate that most of the training framework is valid and incorporates the necessary skills required by a VIP Protector. Improvised explosive devices, electronic counter surveillance and foreign languages did not comply with the required ratio and were therefore excluded from the generic training framework. Although they did not comply with required ratio, the experts consider them as being useful. These skills can therefore be acquired depending on the type of protection needed by the client and the nature of the threat.
6.7. Other comments
The validation questionnaire made provision for additional comments for the experts. A few respondents commented on additional competencies and skills needed, over and above the stipulated competencies and skills in the questionnaire. The following information was acquired:
f) Positive attitude
The validity of the above-mentioned statements or comments could be questioned as not enough respondents gave feedback in this regard to enable the use of Lawshe.s technique to calculate the content validity.
7. Discussion of the generic profile of a VIP Protector
The following discussion indicates the congruence of the most important competencies identified in the literature analysis and gives a description of the different competencies according to the manual of the measure instrument (JPI) used in the study.
Observance refers to the potential or capacity to pay attention, to understand or to be sharp and alert (Erasmus, 1999, p. 3). The inventory indicated that observance is the most important competency needed as a VIP Protector. Observance enables a person to receive information from the external and internal environment, process that information and then decide on the appropriate reaction. Observance is an inherent requirement of the job and can be developed through observation training.
7.2. Listening potential
Listening potential means the potential or capacity to listen and understand what has been heard clearly and objectively (Erasmus 1999, p. 5). Listening potential is extremely important due to the fact that the VIP Protector is in constant interaction with his/her VIP and should listen to the demands and requests of the VIP. Interaction within a protection team forces the VIP Protector to listen to team members and pay attention to instructions that are given.
Hand-eye-coordination can be defined as the potential or capacity to manipulate objects physically with the assistance of one.s limbs and in accordance with signals form the central nervous system (Erasmus 1999, p. 10). Hand-eye-coordination is necessary for advanced driving and the handling of a firearm. The experts indicated both these training skills as being extremely important.
Memory is defined by Erasmus (1999, p. 3) as the potential or capacity to remember certain things. The VIP Protector needs to be aware of his/her environment and a good memory will ensure that the VIP Protector is able to recall his/her surroundings. A good memory will therefore help with route planning and selection. Memory will also ensure that a VIP Protector can react instinctively in critical situations (eg. emergency care and combat situations).
Communication refers to the ability to convey information by means of verbal, non-verbal or written measures, in an accurate, clear and understandable manner in order to maximize understanding of the message. Good communication skills are critical due to the fact that the VIP Protector must communicate about the task at hand. Effective communication is also important for the VIP Protector to educate his/her client regarding the security matters. Effective communication skills can be obtained through the proper training.
Insight refers to the potential or capacity to understand, to .see the wood for the forest. to grasp, to reflect foresight, intuition, vision, wisdom (Erasmus 1999, p. 4). Insight is necessary for a VIP Protector to handle difficult tasks and to solve various problems. Insight is also necessary to master the demanding training received.
Tact refers to the potential or capacity to be courteous, diplomatic, comforting, respectful when attending to the problems or difficulties people experience (Erasmus, 1999, p. 6). Tact is needed due to the high profile work of a VIP Protector. Tact will ensure that the VIP Protector executes his/her task in the correct manner. Tact will also ensure that the VIP Protector is able to learn basic good manners and will blend in at different social occasions.
7.8. Mental stress
Mental stress is defined by Erasmus (1999, p. 7) as the potential or capacity to cope emotionally and socially with psychological pressure as reflected by level of emotional tension. The VIP Protector functions within extreme conditions and can easily be affected by emotional tension. The VIP Protector needs to be able to cope with these pressures to function effectively.
7.9. Personal development
Personal development means the potential or capacity to learn and improve oneself mentally and/or physically (Erasmus, 1999, p. 6). The VIP Protector must be devoted to his/her career and therefore be committed to continually improve him-/herself. Personal development is extremely important and is needed to master all the necessary training skills. Personal development will help the VIP Protector to seek an opportunity to be further trained and to enhance his/her skills.
7.10. Team player
Teamwork can be described as the ability to work with others and to be part of the team. Teamwork is essential because the VIP Protector conducts many of the assignments within a team. Teamwork is needed for proper observation and escorting (including formation walking and driving). Good teamwork will ensure a safe environment for the VIP.
7.11. Excellence orientation
Excellence orientation can be defined as the potential or capacity to set and achieve high standards of excellence and ongoing improvement in excellence as the outcome of uncompromising determination and self-discipline (Erasmus, 1999, p. 7). The VIP Protector needs to set high standards of excellence because there is no leeway for any mistakes in this profession. He/she must strive to improve him- /herself. Self-discipline will help the VIP Protector to refresh his/her skills in firearm, formation and walking drills training and keep his/her fitness level up to standard.
Adaptability refers to the potential or capacity to adapt and accept change, opposing views and new ideas, to be imaginative and creative (Erasmus, 1999, p. 4). Adaptability is necessary for the VIP Protector to adapt to different situations. Each assignment is unique and the VIP Protector needs to adapt accordingly.
Conceptualisation means the potential or capacity to reason in spatial terms, to see the relationship between parts, to .complete. the picture, to envisage the whole or end result and to anticipate the outcome (Erasmus 1999, p. 3). Being able to see the relationship between seemingly unrelated things that could possibly be part of a bigger threat against your principal is very important for the VIP Protector.
7.14. Physical stress
Physical stress is defined by Erasmus (1999, p. 7) as the potential or capacity to cope with emotional and social stress physically (i.e. as reflected by the relative absence of physical systems originating from stress). The VIP Protector is forced to work under extreme conditions and the experience of stress is inevitable. The VIP Protector needs to be able to deal with stressful situations and must be able to manage his/her stress.
8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The diverse nature of the job of VIP Protection forces the modern VIP Protector to possess a vast range of qualities and training skills to be successful. The protector who lacks these qualities and skills, is likely to behave inappropriately or perform substandard and this can be costly. This implies that the modern VIP Protector needs to be professional in conducting his/her assignments. The generic profile and training framework that was developed can be used as the foundation for recruitment, selection, training, development and career planning purposes.
VIP Protectors function within various environments and are faced with different threats. The job of a VIP Protector thus varies due to different environments and threats. This implies that the profile and training frameworks must be adapted accordingly. An investigation of the specific competencies and training needed in these different environments can be useful. � VIP Protection is a very demanding profession. Exploring the emotional strains of VIP Protectors can provide valid information regarding suitable coping mechanisms for them.
9. LIMITATION AND CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY
The following limitation of the study was identified:
� VIP Protectors employed in South Africa were used in this study. Although some of the protectors that were used in the study conduct tasks outside the borders of South Africa, it would have been useful to use protectors from different countries. They could have provided valid information to compile a more general profile.
� The most important contribution of the study is the fact that a profile and a training framework for a VIP Protector was compiled and validated. The literature was vague in terms of an existing profile for a VIP Protector and it appears to be the first investigation regarding a validated profile of a VIP Protector. The study also determined the most important competencies needed. This can help during a selection process where more emphasis is placed on the more important competencies.
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