Validity of JP Expert


Validity of JP Expert

A PROFILE AND TRAINING FRAMEWORK OF VIP PROTECTORby MS S. VENTER PROF J.S. BASSON MNR G.J. STEYN Department of Human Resouces Management, University of Pretoria.Presentation, Istanbul, Turkey: Sixth Annual European Congress of Work andOrganisational Psychology,12-15 May, 2005. 

ABSTRACT

A generic profile and training framework was compiled for a VIP Protector conducting a qualitative data analysis and utilising the Job Profiling Inventory. Lawshe.s content validation technique and a content evaluation panel were used to validate and determine content validity ratios (CVR). High validity ratios (mean of 0,73 and 0,81) were obtained for the profile and training framework respectively. The results indicated that the most important competencies for a VIP Protector are observance, listening potential and hand-eye-coordination with a CVR of 0,99, 0,95 and 0,85 respectively. The most important training identified was escorting, driving skills and weapon handling.

1. BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY


    • � Prominent people in our society have been the target of attacks by means of various terrorist methos. These prominent people represent various sectors including political, economical, military, civil service, private, cultural, religious and academic.
    • � The frequency of attacks on these people has increased drastically and VIPs have consequently turned to private security because of the fact that police are not able to offer adequate protection. The field of VIP Protection has thus unlimited growth potential and the modern VIP Protector will be in great demand due to the increasing unstable conditions in which we live.
    • � The diverse nature of the job of a VIP Protector and the constant emerging of different threats require the selection of the suitable individual. Greater emphasis should therefore be placed on the method of selecting appropriate candidates and more valid selection can take place with the use of a job profile. It allows one to assess an individual against certain competencies, which will ensure successful job performance.
    • � In addition to the necessity of using competencies during selection, it is useless to select appropriate people and train them inadequately. Training is crucial in this field and a VIP Protector cannot function � in this occupation without the relevant training. Training will ensure that VIP Protectors develop their knowledge and skills, which will make them more effective.
    • � The primary aim of this study is therefore to develop and validate a generic profile of a VIP Protector. The secondary aim of the study is to identify and validate the necessary training required for a VIP Protector to be competent.

2. THE VIP PROTECTOR


    • � The modern VIP Protector (commonly known as a bodyguard) is far different to the image many people have of them. Conventional wisdom placed reliance on heavily armed and highly visible bodyguards surrounding a VIP or Principal (Kain, Conner & Brown, 1996) and traditional VIP Protecting required little or no great skill. According to Castleshortt (1996, p. 4) a VIP Protector was simply a catcher of stones spears, arrows and more recently bullet. Little or no planning went into conducting an assignment.
    • � According to SAAF (1999a, p. 2) a VIP (Very Important Person) or a principal is a person that warrants the status of VIP/principal as a result of his/her appointment, his/her position or because of the knowledge that he/she possesses. Kain et al. (1996, p. 273) also pointed out that the high profile or wealth of VIPs makes them conspicuous targets and are the reasons for the threats against them.
    • � VIP Protection can be described as those measures taken by a trained individual or team to continuously ensure the safety of the VIP/principal (SAAF, 1999a, p. 2). Kain et al. (1996, p. 282) state that the aim of VIP Protection is to make it as difficult as possible for anyone to carry out an attack.
    • � According to Thompson (1984) a VIP Protector.s job is twofold. The assignments involve the protection of the client.s physical person and the protection of an area containing the client. A good portion of a VIP Protector.s job involves anticipating possible risks and countering these attacks in advance or making sure they are countered (Thompson, 1984 p. 103). VIP Protection is a field full of misconceptions and it is almost synonymous with bodyguards, guns and bulletproof vests. The following are some of the misconceptions that exist:
    • � People often view VIP Protection as a career for brain-dead people who can hardly utter an intelligent sentence. People also believe that the protectors are hired solely for their impressive .muscle. power (Yates, 1998, p. 8).
    • � Effectiveness in this field goes hand in hand with physical strength. � The main purpose of a VIP Protector is to catch a bullet.
    • � Looking after celebrities often implies that VIP Protection is a glamorous profession.
    • � Many people also believe that men and woman who qualify for VIP Protection are those who are: 1) trained police officers, 2) served in the military or 3) have been in security positions. The downside of these misguided myths are that people think that anyone can become a VIP Protector. Many of the people who enter this career have received little or no training and training is usually given by someone who knows next to nothing himself (Yates, 1998, p. 15).

3. METHOD

The following approach was followed during this study.

3.1 Qualitative data analysis


    • � A qualitative research approach was followed in the literature analysis to develop a generic profile and training framework for a VIP Protector. Literature was investigated and analysed to determine the current status of competencies (profile) and the existing training framework of a VIP Protector. The data used in this study was derived from the most recent literature.
    • - The literature analysis process entails the systematic examination of forms of communication to document patterns objectively (Marshall & Rossman, 1995, p. 85). The literature analysis process used in this study, consists of three concurrent flows of activity namely: 1) data reduction, 2) data display and 3) conclusion drawing and verification.
    • � Data reduction refers to the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting and transforming the data that is collected (Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 10). The purpose of data reduction is therefore to bring order, structure and meaning to mass collected-data (Marshall & Rossman, 1995).
    • � The collected data was reduced to certain themes. Main themes were identified as the characteristics and competencies needed for a VIP Protector and includes the following: observance, insight, handeye- coordination, tact, adaptability and flexibility, mental stress, communication skills, a team player, self discipline, devotion, thoroughness, loyalty, honourability, patience and strong instincts. Training areas or skills were identified to  train an individual to be a competent VIP Protector and include the following: escorting, improvised explosive devices, driving skills, close-quarter battle (including weapon training), electronic counter surveillance (including communication) and paramedicine, observation, route selection and planning, threat assessment, etiquette, foreign languages and physical fitness.
    • � Data display can be described as an organized, compressed assembly of information that permits conclusion drawing and action taking (Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 11). The display helps with understanding what is happening and what should be done . either analyse further or take action based on that understanding. The main themes identified in the data reduction phase, were integrated into a profile and training framework. This is discussed in detail.
    • � The last part of the analysis process is conclusion drawing and verification. According to Miles and Huberman (1994, p. 11), the meaning that emerged from the data must be tested for its plausibility, sturdiness and its .conformability. . that is, its validity. The content validity of the profile and  training framework of a VIP Protector is determined with the help of a panel of experts using Lawshe.s content validity technique.

3.2 Compilation of a VIP Protector.s profile


    • � Job profiling is a method for determining what skills are required for a specific job. According to Erasmus (2001, p. 5) it is imperative to look at a job first in terms of its requirements before one even considers the screening of prospective candidates. This implies that one should evaluate the job in order to determine the competencies, which are vital for successful job performance (Erasmus, 2001).
    • � The use of a profile will make the process of selection much easier and more valid. The profile allows one to assess an individual against certain competencies. The core competencies become the basis of the selection battery to be used during the assessment process of potential candidates.
    • � The Job Profiling Inventory (JPI) is used to profile jobs in terms of relevant competencies or dimensions. The JPI comprises of 67 basic competencies. According to Erasmus (2001, p. 12), the JPI performs all weighting activities by means of ratings on a 5- point scale where:
  1. = Unnecessary
  2. = Below average
  3. = Average
  4. = Above average
  5. = Essential

An individual needs to rate each competency against the above-mentioned 5-point scale, to determine the vital competencies necessary for a specific job.

VIP Protectors were identified from various sectors based on their knowledge and expertise and the JPI was utilised on the sample group to identify core competencies necessary for successful job performance as a VIP Protector. The following VIP Protectors from different sectors were used to provide information regarding the profile and training framework of a VIP Protector:


    • � South African Air Force (VIP Protection wing)
    • � South African Police Service (VIP Protection wing)
    • � Special forces of the South African National Defence Force (VIP Protection wing)
    • � VIP Protectors from the private sector.
    • � These VIP Protectors were identified and chosen because they represented a rich mix of expertise and

because the quality and credibility of data they could generate was assured. The inventory of this study was completed independently and individually and they were asked to screen the competencies and determine the most important competencies necessary for VIP Protection. The data was captured and the profile was compiled with a JPI software programme. The competencies identified through the data analysis and with the help of the job profile were integrated into a generic profile to be validated by a panel of experts.

3.3. Compilation of a training framework for a VIP Protector


    • � The complexity of a VIP Protector.s job forces an individual to be trained in various skills. This implies that without the necessary training in VIP Protection, an individual will be worthless.
    • � Training in the field was investigated during the data analysis phase. Main themes were identified. The experts used in the job profiling process were also used to gather information regarding the necessary training. These focus areas were integrated into the generic training framework.

3.4. Content validity


    • � Validity of the generic profile and training structure had to be determined in order for it to be useful. Lawshe developed a technique to quantify content validity. This determined content validity (expressed as the content validity ratio) is an important yardstick to evaluate the appropriateness of the profile and the training framework of a VIP Protector.
    • � The basic principle of Lawshe.s technique is that a panel of experts in a specific field has to evaluate certain issues at hand. This panel is known as the .Content Evaluation Panel., and composes of people who are knowledgeable about a specific area of expertise, function or discipline. A panel of experts in the field of VIP Protection was identified and used to evaluate the integrated profile and training framework. The content evaluation panel consisted of 40 experts across the different sectors of the VIP Protection field.
    • � Each member of the content evaluation panel was presented with a questionnaire consisting of 2 components namely 1) the profile and 2) the training framework of a VIP Protector. Each member needed to evaluate a set of items and independently indicated whether that competency or skill is essential, useful but not essential, or not necessary, to the performance of the job. According to Lawshe (1975, p. 567) two assumptions can be made namely that any item, which is perceived as .essential. by more than half of the panelists, has some degree of content validity. The second assumption that can be made is that the more panelists (beyond 50%) who perceive the item as .essential., the greater the extent or degree of its content validity. Responses from all panelists were

 pooled and the number indicating essential for each item was determined. Content validity ratios were for the profile and training framework utilising the following formula (Lawshe 1975, p. 567):

CVR= ne-N/2 / N/2

N is the total number of panelists and ne is the number of panelists indicating .essential.. While the CVR is a direct linear transformation from the percentage saying .essential., its utility derives from its characteristics. Lawshe (1975, pp. 567-568) indicated that when:

1 Fewer than half say .essential., the CVR is negative

2 Half say .essential. and half do not, the CVR is zero

3 All say .essential. the CVR is computed to be 1,00 (it is adjusted to 0,99 for ease of manipulation)

4 The number saying .very important. is more than half but less than all, the CVR is somewhere between zero and 0,99. A minimum CVR of 0,29 is required due to the fact that the panel consists of 40 experts. Table 1 indicates the minimum required CVR values.

TABLE 1 MINIMUM VALUES OF CVR

No of panelists

Min CVR Value*
50.99
60.99
70.99
80.75
90.78
100.62
110.59
120.56
130.54
140.51
150.49
200.42
250.37
300.33
350.31
400.29

    • When all say .essential. the CVR is computed to be 1.00. (It is adjusted to .99 for ease of manipulation)
    • When the number saying .essential. is more than half, but less than all, the CVR is somewhere between zero and 0.99.
    • The competencies and training skills that complied with the required value of 0,29 were retained in the profile and training framework of a VIP Protector. High CVR values indicate thus on high content validity and those with the highest CVR values are perceived as the most important competencies and training necessary.
    •  After the items have been identified for inclusion in the profile and training framework, the Content Validity Index (CVI) for the profile and the training framework is computed. The CVI is the mean of the CVR values meeting the minimum required value.

4. QUALITATIVE LITERATURE ANALYSIS

4.1 Profile of a VIP PROTECTOR

The modern VIP Protector must possess certain qualities and be competent in various skills to perform effectively as a VIP Protector. Certain psychological factors need to be considered before appointing a VIP Protector. The following competencies and characteristics were identified during the literature analysis:

4.1.1. Observance

Consterdine (1993), SAAF (1999a), Miller and Miller (in Kobetz, 1994) and Yates (1998) state that a VIP Protector must have excellent observation skills. The VIP Protector must be attentive to detail and a keen observer. Observation is the most used skill and this must be learned and practised regularly. Observation is not just about looking but it is about seeing and is therefore extremely important for proactive avoidance of possible attacks and effective responding to threatening situations.

4.1.2. Insight

Consterdine (1993) and Yates (1998) are of the opinion that a VIP Protector must have an above average intelligence. Oatman (in Kobetz 1991) and Yates (1998,) affirmed this by stating that a VIP Protector must have good common sense. Miller and Miller (in Kobetz, 1994, p. 111) also state that a VIP Protector must be able to put the puzzle together. This will ensure that the protector is able to solve various problems quickly and effectively.

4.1.3. Hand-eye-coordination

According to the SAAF (1999a), a VIP Protector must have good hand-eye-coordination and reflexes. Good hand-eye-coordination will help the VIP Protector to cope with high speed driving and ensure that the VIP Protector can react quickly in situations where he/she is forced to combat at close range.

4.1.4. Tact

Tact can be considered as one of the main qualities of a VIP Protector (Iverson, 2000; SAAF, 1999a; Yates, 1998). The high profile work of VIP Protection forces the VIP Protector to behave in a tactful manner in the presence of the principal. The VIP Protector must also be able to lead a tactful conversation with his/her VIP.

4.1.5. Adaptability and flexibility

Kobetz (1994) pointed out that a VIP Protector must be able to adapt and be flexible. The VIP Protector needs to be able to adapt due to the fact that he/she will be working long hours with little or no sleep. Flexibility is important since the VIP Protector will not be working normal and fixed hours. Adaptability also includes social adaptability (SAAF, 1999a). The VIP Protection specialist needs to adapt to the different social settings and environments that he/she works in. He/she needs to be flexible to work with a range of people and adapt to their preferred way of doing.

4.1.6 Mental stress

The SAAF (1999a, p. 4) pointed out it is essential for a VIP Protector to have the ability to handle difficult and demanding tasks. Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) also states that the mental health of a VIP Protector must be excellent. The protection specialist needs to work under extreme conditions and long hours are the norm.

4.1.7. Communication skills

According to Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) and Consterdine (1993), a VIP Protector should be an excellent communicator. Communication includes sign communication and intuitive communication. Sign communication covers hand and body signals, whereas intuitive communication takes place between members of a well-trained team who have operated together for a while (Castleshortt, 1996, p. 10). Effective communication is extremely important because the VIP Protector usually functions within a team and needs to educate his/her VIP in security matters.

4.1.8. Team player

According to Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) a VIP Protector must be a good team player. Many of the operations of VIP Protection are conducted within a team and being a team player is therefore essential. A safer environment will be created for the VIP when a team of protection specialists are involved.

4.1.9. Self-discipline

Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991), Kobetz (1994), SAAF (1999a) and Yates (1998) pointed out that self-discipline is an important trait of a VIP Protector. Self-discipline ensures that the VIP Protector keeps himself/herself current in the field of VIP Protection. The VIP Protector must continuously refresh his/her skills in firearm training, formation and walking drills and planning. It is also the responsibility of the VIP Protector to keep his fitness level up to standard.

4.1.10 Devotion

Kobetz (1994), Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) and SAAF (1999a) are of the opinion that devotion is an important trait of a VIP Protector. The VIP Protector must be dedicated to his/her responsibilities. Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) further states that a VIP Protector must be willing to be further trained in the field of VIP Protection.

4.1.11 Attitude

According to Yates (1998) and Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991), positive attitude towards the job is, even under extreme circumstances, an important trait of a VIP Protector. Consterdine (1993, p. 35) states that a VIP Protector must have a mature attitude toward his/her work. The positive attitude will trigger enthusiasm and this will enable the VIP Protector to view every chance as an opportunity.

4.1.12.Thoroughness

Thoroughness is another important quality of a VIP Protector (Kobetz, 1994). The VIP Protector must be focused on his/her task at hand and execute it with the necessary thoroughness. Every task starts with a planning phase and should be done thoroughly to avoid any errors that may arise out of a situation or an attack on your VIP.

4.1.13 Loyalty

Kobetz (1994), SAAF (1999a) and Spill (2001b) stress that loyalty is another important trait of a VIP Protector. The VIP Protector needs to be loyal to his/her principal. To be able to protect a VIP one hundred percent, the Protector needs to be loyal towards his/her work, which will reflect on his/her need to place the VIP.s life before his/her own

4.1.14.Honourability

Kobetz (1994), Oatman (in Kobetz, 1991) and Spill (2001b) are of the opinion that being honourable is another important trait of a VIP Protector. A VIP Protector must be truthful, doing right and knowing wrong. Lonsdale (1995b, p. 7) states that the principal will not trust a VIP Protector when he/she is willing to participate in illegal activities simply to protect his/her job.

4.1.15 Patience

According to SAAF (1999a) and Yates (1998), patience is an important characteristic for a VIP Protector. To function effectively within the milieu of VIP Protection, patience plays an important role when dealing with VIPs and work related problems. The Protector will be forced to work with various people and VIP delegates. Differences in culture, personality, language and religion can be frustrating for the VIP Protector and can cause irritation and annoyance. The VIP Protector needs to focus on the task and the client.s safety.

4.1.16 Strong instincts

Spill (2001a) states that good instincts are essential qualities of a VIP Protector. According to Iverson (2000, p. 19), a VIP Protector must be able to assess and read into a situation. This means the VIP Protector needs to be .street wise. and able to sense when things are about to go wrong so that he/she can take the appropriate action to avoid certain situations.

4.2 Training Frameworks

VIP Protectors can hardly do their job efficiently without the necessary training. Due to the diverse tasks of a VIP Protector and the emergence of new threats every day, training is essential in this industry and thus, learning is continual. Due to the importance of having skilled VIP Protectors and the increasing demand for VIP Protectors, it is crucial that proper training is given by qualified instructors. The following skills of a VIP Protector were identified during the literature analysis.

4.2.1. Escorting

Yates (1998) is of the opinion that a VIP Protection course, must consist of pedestrian and vehicle escort training. Pedestrian escourt is trained through formation and walking drills. Formation and walking drills teach the precise positions of each team member on the ground (Snowdon, 1990, p. 19). Clearly the principal will not be walking everywhere. Therefore offensive and defensive driving must be taught to VIP Protectors to escort the principal.

4.2.2. Improvised explosive devices (IED)

Iverson (2000) states that the biggest threats a VIP Protector will face are bombs and improvised explosive devices. According to Yates (1998) and Thompson (1984) training in improvised explosive devices is essential. Yates (1998) states that the aim of training in IED is to extend the VIP Protector.s working knowledge of explosives and improvised devices. The role of the VIP Protector is, however, only to locate the device, remove the principal from the danger and to contact the appropriate authorities.

4.2.3 Driving skills

Yates (1998) pointed out that driving skill is one of the most important skills that a VIP Protector should possess. Protective driving consists of  three phases, namely defensive, evasive and offensive driving.  According to Castleshortt (1996) defensive driving can be defined as driving in  situations where one seeks  to avoid potential danger. Evasive driving enables the vehicle to escape from an ambush (Castleshortt,  1996). If the  individual has failed to avoid (defensive) and failed to escape (evasive) the threat, then the  individual must confront the threat. This is the basis of offensive driving, which refers to situations where the vehicle is used as a weapon (Castleshortt, 1996).

4.2.4 Close-quarter battle skills

A VIP Protector should be competent in close-quarter battle skills (Yates, 1998). Close-quarter battle is a generic term referring to combat in close proximity to the VIP. The methods used include firearms, chemical agents, edged and impact weapons, unarmed combat, arrest and restraint techniques and empty-hand combat.

4.2.5 Weapon training

Consterdine (1993), Snowdon (1990) and Thompson (1984) pointed out that weapon-handling training is essential. Kain et al. (1996, p. 272), state that although weapons do have a role to play, they don.t provide protection by themselves. It is unfortunate that the term bodyguard or VIP Protection is so often linked with the term .firearms.. This linkage has a negative influence on the image of a VIP Protector. The VIP Protector should be trained to a standard where the weapon becomes an effective tool and where the VIP Protector will be confident enough to counter any attack by a terrorist.

4.2.6 Electronic counter surveillance

Snowdon (1990) and Thompson (1984) are of the opinion that a VIP Protector needs to be proficient in this skill. Electronic counter surveillance is the physical and electronic search for passive and active means of electronic surveillance (commonly known as .bugs.). It includes the electronic counter measures needed to defeat electronic surveillance. According to Yates (1998) electronic counter surveillance is the most technical skill of all to master.

4.2.7 Communication

According to Consterdine (1993) and to Snowdon (1990), a VIP Protector must be trained in communication skills. The individual must be trained to communicate effectively with various individuals. Means of communication include face-to-face conversations, messages passed through a third party, use of copper wire or fibre-optic telephone cables, and carrier current intercoms, as well as radio transmissions (Castleshortt, 1996, p. 10). They should be clear and secure. This is to ensure that the message is clearly understood and that no unauthorised person can receive it.

4.2.8 Paramedicine

Consterdine (1993), Thompson (1984) and Yates (1998) pointed out that a VIP Protector must be trained in paramedic skills and be able to apply first aid. The VIP Protector should be trained in life-support techniques to enable him/her to assist the principal in life and death situations. The following additional skills were identified in which a VIP Protector needs to be trained in. These skills will not be the main focus of the training. The additional skills include the following: observation, route selection and planning, threat assessment, etiquette, foreign language and physical fitness.4.2.9 Observation

According to Yates (1998), observation is the most used skill. The effective VIP Protector needs to trust his/her intuitive processing and should be able to be engaged in his/her environment while still being aware of what is going on around him/her (Iverson, 2000, p. 123). The VIP Protector can consciously train him-/herself to improve his/her observation skills by means of asking questions about his/her surroundings and by evaluating people.s behaviour. These exercises will help the VIP Protector to look and stay sharp in the field of VIP Protection.

4.2.10 Route selection and route planning

Consterdine (1993) states that a VIP Protector should be trained in route selection and planning. A route survey is necessary for the selection of primary and alternative routes of travel, as well as measures necessary to secure the routes to ensure the safety of the VIP when travelling by vehicle.

4.2.11 Threat assessment

According to Consterdine (1993), the VIP Protector must be an expert in threat assessment and Yates (1998) is of the opinion that it is one of the fundamental VIP Protector.s skills. A threat assessment is a systematic analysis of the degree of threat to the principal and is used to determine the type and measure of protection needed to safeguard the principal.s life. Ferrara in Kobetz (1991) states that the purpose of a threat assessment is to determine what risks exist

4.2.12 Etiquette

According to Yates (1998), basic good manners are a must. These include table manners and appropriate dressing required for social, entertaining and formal occasions. Thompson (1984) states that good knowledge of literature, art, music, drama and film can be very useful at social functions when the VIP Protector needs to blend in with the guests

4.2.13 Foreign language

According to Yates (1998) the learning of certain phrases and words is useful when a task is conducted in another country or when the VIP comes from another country. This implies that the VIP Protector must be prepared well in advance and before embarking on an assignment.

4.2.14 Physical condition

Iverson (2000) and Consterdine (1993) pointed out that a VIP protector should be physically fit. Iverson (2000) states that your concentration is higher when you are fit. This implies that your stamina will be better as well as your subconscious attention to detail. Fitness will improve your mental alertness.

6. QUALITATIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results discussed include the job profiling inventory and the content validity responses.

6.1. Job profiling inventory

The .Job Profiling Inventory (JPI). was utilised to profile the job of a VIP Protector in terms of the necessary competencies. The JP Expert ranks the top eight competencies in order of importance. The analyst can however manipulate the system by changing the number of competencies needed. Due to the diverse nature of the job of a VIP Protector and to incorporate more competencies identified in the literature analysis, twelve competencies were chosen. The following profile was derived from the Job Profiling Expert used to assess fifteen VIP Protectors from various sectors:

TABLE 2: COMPETENCY PROFILE ACCORDING TO THE JPI

Nr

CompetencyValue
1Observance4.2
2Hand-eye-coordination3.73
3Memory3.73
4Listening potential3.67
5Tact3.2
6Mental stress3.13
7Adaptability3.13
8Personal development2.93
9Excellence orientation2.93
10Physical stress2.93
11Conceptualisation2.93
12Insight2.73

6.2. Generic profile of a VIP Protector

The results of the JPI and the competencies identified in the literature analysis were combined into a generic profile. Most of the competencies identified through the literature analysis and job profiling process, corresponded. Although self-discipline and devotion appeared in the analysis as competencies necessary for success, they were combined under excellence orientation and personal development respectively. Memory and conceptualisation were not identified as important competencies in the literature analysis, but were included in the generic profile. Loyalty, honourability, patience and attitude were not included in the generic profile of a VIP Protector. The main reason for not being included in the profile is that these characteristics are extremely difficult to measure and to observe. These traits will be demonstrated once a person is selected and executes a task. While they are important characteristics, it is very difficult to develop these traits. The generic competencies of a VIP Protector include the following: observance, hand-eye-coordination, memory, listening potential, tact, mental stress, adaptability, personal development (including devotion), excellence orientation (including self-discipline), physical stress, conceptualisation, insight, communication and being a team player.

6.3. Generic training framework of a VIP Protector

The main themes of training for a VIP Protector were identified. Themes that were combined and included in the generic training framework, include the following: escorting, improvised explosive devices, driving skills, close-quarter battle (including weapon training), electronic counter surveillance (includingcommunication), paramedicine, observation, route selection and planning, threat assessment, etiquette, foreign languages and physical fitness.

6.4. Content validity

Lawshe.s (1975) content validation method was utilised to determine the content validity ratios. The content validity ratio (CVR) required to be included in the profile and training framework, is 0,29. Lawshe.s technique requires a ratio of 0,29 when 40 experts participate in the survey. After determining the content validity ratio, only the values greater than 0,29 were retained. Thereafter, the mean of these ratios were calculated and included in the content validity index (CVI). The table indicates the CVR ratios and the CVI for the profile as well as the training framework. The competencies and training skills were prioritised in the table and did not appear in this sequence in the questionnaires distributed.

TABLE 3: CONTENT VALIDITY RATIO FOR THE GENERIC PROFILE

 ElementsStatementCVRCVI
 Essential

Useful, but not essential

 Not necessary

  
PROFILE    0,73
1. Observance40000,99 
2. Listening potential39100,95 
3. Hand-eye-coordination37300,85 
4. Memory37300,85 
5. Communication37300,85 
 6. Insight36400,80 
7. Tact35500,75 
8. Mental stress34600,70 
9. Personal development33700,65 
10. Team player3370 0,65 
11. Excellence orientation31900,55 
12. Adaptability31900,55 
13. Conceptualisation31900,55 
14. Physical stress30910,50 

General judgement of the profile of a VIP Protector

39100,95 

TABLE 4 CONTENT VALIDITY RATIO FOR THE TRAINING FRAMEWORK

ElementsStatementCVRCVI
 Essential

Useful, but not essential

 Not necessary

  
TRAINING FRAMEWORK    0,81
1. Escorting40000,99 
2. Driving skills40000,99 
3. Weapon training40000,99 
4. Fitness39100,95 
5. Route selection and planning39100,95 
6. Threat assessment38200,90 
7. Close-quarter battle skills37300,85 
8. Observation36400,80 
9. Communication31900,55 
10. Etiquette31900,55 
11. Paramedicine281200,40 
12. Improvised explosive devices241600,20 
13. Electronic counter surveillance211900,05 
14. Foreign language182200,10 
 

6.5 Validity of the profile

The results indicate that the whole profile of a VIP Protector is valid due to the high validity ratios. All the competencies are therefore essential for effective job performance and were retained for the profile. The overall judgement of the profile indicates a content validity ratio of 0,99 and the CVI indicates a ratio of 0,73. This implies that the overall impression of the profile of a VIP Protector is valid and that the profile is a true portrayal of the competencies needed for a VIP Protector.

6.6. Validity of the training framework

The results indicate that most of the training framework is valid and incorporates the necessary skills required by a VIP Protector. Improvised explosive devices, electronic counter surveillance and foreign languages did not comply with the required ratio and were therefore excluded from the generic training framework. Although they did not comply with required ratio, the experts consider them as being useful. These skills can therefore be acquired depending on the type of protection needed by the client and the nature of the threat.

6.7. Other comments

The validation questionnaire made provision for additional comments for the experts. A few respondents commented on additional competencies and skills needed, over and above the stipulated competencies and skills in the questionnaire. The following information was acquired:

Profile:

  1. Managerial skills
  2. General knowledge
  3. Hard worker
  4. Vision
  5. Precision

f) Positive attitude

Training frameworks:

  1. Planning and organising
  2. Protocol issues
  3. Special and new equipment
  4. Computer literacy
  5. Venue selection and planning
  6. Immediate action drills.

The validity of the above-mentioned statements or comments could be questioned as not enough respondents gave feedback in this regard to enable the use of Lawshe.s technique to calculate the content validity.

7. Discussion of the generic profile of a VIP Protector

The following discussion indicates the congruence of the most important competencies identified in the literature analysis and gives a description of the different competencies according to the manual of the measure instrument (JPI) used in the study.

7.1. Observance

Observance refers to the potential or capacity to pay attention, to understand or to be sharp and alert (Erasmus, 1999, p. 3). The inventory indicated that observance is the most important competency needed as a VIP Protector. Observance enables a person to receive information from the external and internal environment, process that information and then decide on the appropriate reaction. Observance is an inherent requirement of the job and can be developed through observation training.

7.2. Listening potential

Listening potential means the potential or capacity to listen and understand what has been heard clearly and objectively (Erasmus 1999, p. 5). Listening potential is extremely important due to the fact that the VIP Protector is in constant interaction with his/her VIP and should listen to the demands and requests of the VIP. Interaction within a protection team forces the VIP Protector to listen to team members and pay attention to instructions that are given.

7.3. Hand-eye-coordination

Hand-eye-coordination can be defined as the potential or capacity to manipulate objects physically with the assistance of one.s limbs and in accordance with signals form the central nervous system (Erasmus 1999, p. 10). Hand-eye-coordination is necessary for advanced driving and the handling of a firearm. The experts indicated both these training skills as being extremely important.

7.4. Memory

Memory is defined by Erasmus (1999, p. 3) as the potential or capacity to remember certain things. The VIP Protector needs to be aware of his/her environment and a good memory will ensure that the VIP Protector is able to recall his/her surroundings. A good memory will therefore help with route planning and selection. Memory will also ensure that a VIP Protector can react instinctively in critical situations (eg. emergency care and combat situations).

7.5. Communication

Communication refers to the ability to convey information by means of verbal, non-verbal or written measures, in an accurate, clear and understandable manner in order to maximize understanding of the message. Good communication skills are critical due to the fact that the VIP Protector must communicate about the task at hand. Effective communication is also important for the VIP Protector to educate his/her client regarding the security matters. Effective communication skills can be obtained through the proper training.

7.6. Insight

Insight refers to the potential or capacity to understand, to .see the wood for the forest. to grasp, to reflect foresight, intuition, vision, wisdom (Erasmus 1999, p. 4). Insight is necessary for a VIP Protector to handle difficult tasks and to solve various problems. Insight is also necessary to master the demanding training received.

7.7. Tact

Tact refers to the potential or capacity to be courteous, diplomatic, comforting, respectful when attending to the problems or difficulties people experience (Erasmus, 1999, p. 6). Tact is needed due to the high profile work of a VIP Protector. Tact will ensure that the VIP Protector executes his/her task in the correct manner. Tact will also ensure that the VIP Protector is able to learn basic good manners and will blend in at different social occasions.

7.8. Mental stress

Mental stress is defined by Erasmus (1999, p. 7) as the potential or capacity to cope emotionally and socially with psychological pressure as reflected by level of emotional tension. The VIP Protector functions within extreme conditions and can easily be affected by emotional tension. The VIP Protector needs to be able to cope with these pressures to function effectively.

7.9. Personal development

Personal development means the potential or capacity to learn and improve oneself mentally and/or physically (Erasmus, 1999, p. 6). The VIP Protector must be devoted to his/her career and therefore be committed to continually improve him-/herself. Personal development is extremely important and is needed to master all the necessary training skills. Personal development will help the VIP Protector to seek an opportunity to be further trained and to enhance his/her skills.

7.10. Team player

Teamwork can be described as the ability to work with others and to be part of the team. Teamwork is essential because the VIP Protector conducts many of the assignments within a team. Teamwork is needed for proper observation and escorting (including formation walking and driving). Good teamwork will ensure a safe environment for the VIP.

7.11. Excellence orientation

Excellence orientation can be defined as the potential or capacity to set and achieve high standards of excellence and ongoing improvement in excellence as the outcome of uncompromising determination and self-discipline (Erasmus, 1999, p. 7). The VIP Protector needs to set high standards of excellence because there is no leeway for any mistakes in this profession. He/she must strive to improve him- /herself. Self-discipline will help the VIP Protector to refresh his/her skills in firearm, formation and walking drills training and keep his/her fitness level up to standard.

7.12. Adaptability

Adaptability refers to the potential or capacity to adapt and accept change, opposing views and new ideas, to be imaginative and creative (Erasmus, 1999, p. 4). Adaptability is necessary for the VIP Protector to adapt to different situations. Each assignment is unique and the VIP Protector needs to adapt accordingly.

7.13. Conceptualisation

Conceptualisation means the potential or capacity to reason in spatial terms, to see the relationship between parts, to .complete. the picture, to envisage the whole or end result and to anticipate the outcome (Erasmus 1999, p. 3). Being able to see the relationship between seemingly unrelated things that could possibly be part of a bigger threat against your principal is very important for the VIP Protector.

7.14. Physical stress

Physical stress is defined by Erasmus (1999, p. 7) as the potential or capacity to cope with emotional and social stress physically (i.e. as reflected by the relative absence of physical systems originating from stress). The VIP Protector is forced to work under extreme conditions and the experience of stress is inevitable. The VIP Protector needs to be able to deal with stressful situations and must be able to manage his/her stress.

8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The diverse nature of the job of VIP Protection forces the modern VIP Protector to possess a vast range of qualities and training skills to be successful. The protector who lacks these qualities and skills, is likely to behave inappropriately or perform substandard and this can be costly. This implies that the modern VIP Protector needs to be professional in conducting his/her assignments. The generic profile and training framework that was developed can be used as the foundation for recruitment, selection, training, development and career planning purposes.

VIP Protectors function within various environments and are faced with different threats. The job of a VIP Protector thus varies due to different environments and threats. This implies that the profile and training frameworks must be adapted accordingly. An investigation of the specific competencies and training needed in these different environments can be useful. � VIP Protection is a very demanding profession. Exploring the emotional strains of VIP Protectors can provide valid information regarding suitable coping mechanisms for them.

9. LIMITATION AND CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY

The following limitation of the study was identified:

� VIP Protectors employed in South Africa were used in this study. Although some of the protectors that were used in the study conduct tasks outside the borders of South Africa, it would have been useful to use protectors from different countries. They could have provided valid information to compile a more general profile.

� The most important contribution of the study is the fact that a profile and a training framework for a VIP Protector was compiled and validated. The literature was vague in terms of an existing profile for a VIP Protector and it appears to be the first investigation regarding a validated profile of a VIP Protector. The study also determined the most important competencies needed. This can help during a selection process where more emphasis is placed on the more important competencies.

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