Cross cultural investigation


Cross cultural investigation

   THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE PIB Pieter Schaap,D.com

(Department of Human Resource Management) (University of Pretoria)
APPROXIMATIONS OF THE CULTURAL GROUPING ON WHICH THE DATA IS BASED

Cultural groupings

Percent

Black people

60-70

White people

10-15

Asian people

15-20

Coloured people

5-10

The data is more or less in line with the demographics of the RSA

SUMMARY OF PIB RELIABILITY STUDIES DONE SINCE 1995

  

Reliability Studies

PIB-Index (Verbal)

TotalStudy 1Study 2Study 3Study 4Study 5Study 6Mean
 NNRttNRttNRttNRttNRttNRttRtt

1-General Knowledge

22955260.701060.7416630.71       

2- Creativity

808616660.711010.7217940.7845250.7530380.75   
3-Reading Comprehension3596437820.79860.65114540.8374500.83131920.76   

4-Calculations

3942910.741030.89        0.81
5-Mental Alertness3680238190.8711670.93111080.8772400.87134680.79  0.87
6-Listening Skills

335

3350.70          0.70
7-Abstract Reasoning20672360.7718310.76        0.77

8-Flexibility

374821950.7915530.70        0.75

9-Interpersonal Relations

143041870.8311480.7926940.8351020.8229780.8221950.850.82

10-Self-image

72427360.7623740.8727490.7915670.79    0.80

11-Vocabulary

167902900.7618030.7613400.76133570.76    0.76

15-Motivation

930511630.7014220.7526870.7119300.7121030.82  0.75

17-Time management

5875870.70          0.70

18-Stress Level

576219480.9415850.9222290.90      0.92

20-A\B Behaviour

1861860.70          0.70

21-Assertiveness

67361870.881480.7222410.8319500.7422100.86  0.80

22-Spelling

140345660.65134680.74        0.70

24 Coping Skills

1871870.61          0.61

 

  

Reliability Studies

PIB-Index (Verbal)

TotalStudy 1Study 2Study 3Study 4Study 5Study 6Mean
 NNRttNRttNRttNRttNRttNRttRtt

1-General Knowledge

73897030.8015640.7945640.795580.85    0.81

2- Creativity

7017010.61          0.61
3-Reading Comprehension7007000.80          0.80

4-Calculations

7017010.68          0.68
5-Mental Alertness531713500.8433530.845580.893560.89    0.86
6-Listening Skills3563560.78          0.78
7-Abstract Reasoning3563560.89          0.89

 

Abbreviations:

  • Rtt :Reliability
  • N :Sample size

SUMMARY OF PREDICTIVE VALIDITY STUDIES DONE SINCE 1995

The following results is based on regression analyses done and includes more than one predictor (PIBindexes):

Mean R

Academic environment (based on 42 studies) 0.70

Corporate environment (based on 4 studies) 0.40

The following PIB-Indexes have shown predictive validity in a single or more than one study.

Verbal Indexes:

1-General Knowledge

2-Creativity

3-Reading Comprehension

4-Numerical Ability

5-Mental Alertness

7-Abstract Reasoning

8-Flexibility

9-Interpersonal Relations

10-Self-image

12-Vocabulary

15-Self-motivation

17-Time Management

18-Stress Management

21-Assertiveness

22-Spelling

Visual:

2-Spacial Reasoning

3-Short-term Memory

4-Numerical Ability

5-Mental Alertness

6-Potential to Assemble

SUMMARY OF BIAS ANALYSIS DONE SINCE 1995

The following indexes were analyses to date and found to be non-biased for cultural and language groups in RSA:

1- General Knowledge

3- Reading Comprehension

5- Mental Alertness

12-Vocabulary

22-Spelling

SUMMARY OF CONTRUCT VALIDITY DONE SINCE 1995

A. INTER-TEST CORRELATION STUDIES

PIB-Indexes (Verbal)INTER-TEST CORRELATIONS (N=200 or more)

 

SSHAAATnvAATvAATsVPib-4FCT16PFcLeadAnxExt

4-Calculations

     0.53    

5-Mental Alertness

0.580.700.450.520.59     

9-Interpersonal Relations

0.58     0.450.63-0.430.51

10-Self-image

      0.700.55-0.51 

15-Motivation

0.62     0.530.33-0.52 

18-Stress Level

-0.54         

24-Coping Skills

0.69         
           
           

Abbreviations:

  • SSHA : Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes
  • AATnv : Academic aptitude test (non-verbal)
  • AATv : Academic aptitude test (verbal)
  • AATs : Academic aptitude test (spacial)
  • VPIB-4 :Calculations test
  • FCT : Figure classification test
  • 16PFc : 16PF factor c (emotional stability)
  • Lead : Combination of 16PF factors closely associated with leadership
  • Anx : 16PF anxiety (second order factor)
  • Ext : 16PF extroversion (second order factor)

FACTOR VALIDITY AND ITEM ANALYSIS STUDIES OF SELECTED PIB INDEXES

Procedures followed:

In analysing the indexes the following procedure was used in the case of fixed interval scaled items (Schepers,1992). A first-order factor analysis was performed using the principle axes factoring method and varimax rotation. Items with high loadings on a specific factor were added together to form a sub-value. A second order factor analysis was performed on the sub-values using the principle axes factoring method and an oblique rotation.

The index scales were identified according to the factors extracted on the second order analysis. Items were grouped according to the loadings on a specific factor. Item and reliability analysis was done separately for each scale Item selection was based on item-total correlation, item mean values and item variance. In the case of the dichotomous scaled items the following procedure was used: An item analysis was done and the best items were selected based on the difficulty value, discrimination value and the item-total correlation.

Reference:

Schepers, J.M., 1992. Toetskonstruksie: Teorie en praktyk. Johannesburg: RAU-Drukpers Updated and new PIB-scales: N Rtt (reliability) Index 1: General Knowledge (20 items) 1663 0.71

Index 2: Creativity 1727

  • Scale 1: Rigidity (15 items) 0.72
  • Scale 2: Imagination (15 items) 0.83

Index 3: Reading comprehension (25 items) 13192 0.76

Index 4: Calculations (15 items) 615 0.72

Index 5: Mental alertness (25 items) 13468 0.80

Index 7: Abstract reasoning (18 items) 1831 0.76

Index 8: Flexibility 2195 0.79

Index 9: Interpersonal relations 2828

  • Scale 1: Sociability (19 items) 0.80
  • Scale 2: Associability (18 items) 0.80

Index 10: Self-image 2421

  • Scale 1: Self-worth (21 items) 0.82
  • Scale 2: Self-critism (15 items) 0.81

Index 12: Vocabulary (20 items) 13192 0.76

Index 15: Motivation 1436

  • Scale 1: Internal locus of control (20 items) 0.81
  • Scale 2: External locus of control (20 items) 0.81

Index 18: Stress level 1984

  • Scale 1: Physical symptoms (12 items) 0.81
  • Scale 2: Psychological symptoms (24 items) 0.94

Index 21: Assertiveness (25 items) 2241 0.83

Index 22: Spelling (16 items) 13468 0.74

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